According to the developmental tasks described by Havighurst (1972), young adults may be starting to. Alba, J. W., & Hutchinson, J. W. (1987). Brand familiarity and advertising repetition effects. The funnel plots showed no evidence of publication bias in terms of smaller studies missing at the bottom left corner (i.e., no evidence that smaller studies with minor effect sizes failed to be published). Overall, the moderators appeared very effective in explaining the between-study heterogeneity accounting for 95–100% of the variability with respect to three key dependent variables (attitude toward the endorsed object, attitude toward the ad, behavioral intention). Decision Sciences, 8(3), 576–583. Establishing awareness starts from creating attention and interest (Lavidge and Steiner 1961). This resulted in 15 eligible measures: attention to and interest in an ad, awareness of an endorsed object (recognition and recall), attitude toward an ad, attitude toward the endorsed object, perceived credibility of the ad and advertiser, meaning transfer (in the sense of transferring a celebrity’s meaning to a brand), evoked feelings, estimated price of a product, taste of a product, estimated information value of an ad, planning to inform oneself more about an endorsed object, perceived increase of knowledge, perceived risk when buying or using a product, brand choice, and behavioral intentions (intention to purchase or use an object, intention to volunteer, intention to support a charitable cause by spending time or money, and intention to share an endorsed object online; cf. a step-by-step approach. Cross-cultural consumer behavior: a review of research findings. Increasing exposure time enhances processing capacity, which may lead to stronger and more durable effects (Petty and Cacioppo 1986). A concise summary of the existing knowledge on celebrity endorsement effects can be found in Table 1. For the theoretically relevant moderators, our study could not integrate several moderators due to missing coding information, no variability within the moderators, or simply a lack of studies. Open access funding provided by University of Vienna. We consequently propose stronger celebrity endorsement effects for unfamiliar objects when compared to familiar ones. As a result, object recall and recognition is assumed to be enhanced due to greater message elaboration (*Petty et al. As seen in Table 3, the effect size decreased when the comparison group featured some other kind of endorsement, as indicated by all the regression coefficients being negative. Whittaker, J. O. The advertising vehicles in which the celebrity endorsements were integrated present such a factor (cf. Higgins, J. P. T., & Thompson, S. G. (2002). Most studies have investigated either female or male endorsers (for the only exception, see Freiden 1984). Unconscious transfer of meaning to brands. Though the existing studies suggest strong transfer effects, further research is needed, also specifying boundary conditions (e.g., brand familiarity, *Miller and Allen 2012). According to this model, consumers develop persuasion knowledge throughout a lifetime of being exposed to persuasive communication. Contrary to our assumption, there was no effect. A., Dovey, T. M., Allison, M., Dobson, S., Jacobs, M. C., & Halford, J. C. G. (2013). As a result, the intercept’s coefficient (Table 3), being significant and positive, represents the average effect size of celebrity endorsements compared to a non-endorsed group. Kaikati, J. G. (1987). Funnel plots of the studies in the meta-analysis for various dependent variables. In addition, results may be generalized because the investigated studies are treated as a random subset of a larger study population (Hedges and Vevea 1998). Efficacy of the theory of planned behaviour: a meta-analytic review. Gorn, G. J. Interestingly, although effect sizes lowered significantly in the aforementioned cases (unknown model or athlete, quality seal or award, government employee, endorser brand), celebrity endorsements performed worse only when compared to a quality seal or award, or an endorser brand. Higgins, J. P. T., & Green, S. (2011). 1997). Research has revealed women to be higher ranking on goodwill and fairness, whereas men outperform women on the remaining dimensions (Kenton 1989). 2011; Ross et al. Celebrity endorsement: a literature review. Object familiarity can be understood as the number of object-related experiences accumulated by a consumer (Alba and Hutchinson 1987). Surprisingly, almost no average effects were observed for standard measures, such as awareness, attitude toward the ad, or purchase intention. Which of the following theories describes how spokespeople's endorsements work? (2006). Last but not least, results are less clear in terms of a causal interpretation since surveys were included predominantly. which of the following is NOT a content theory of motivation? The economic value of celebrity endorsements. The theory of deontology states that when we have to make ethical decisions, our first thoughts are on our duties and obligations. The effectiveness of celebrity endorsements: a meta-analysis. Review of General Psychology, 6(1), 73–91. The category of employee of the selling company was missing because no study included both attitude toward the endorsed object and employee of the selling company. Both refer to evaluations or behavior directly related to the endorsed object. In addition, the third column specifies the particular types of endorsements received by the comparison groups. Janae and Elliot have a relationship in which physical attraction and sexual arousal are prevalent. Star power. The moderators were able to explain 100 % of the heterogeneity. Kim, M. S., & Hunter, J. E. (1993). *Chen, C. Y., Lin, Y. H., & Hsiao, C. L. (2012). Studies have mostly investigated celebrity endorsements according to one or more of the model’s advertising functions (Bergkvist and Zhou 2016; Erdogan 1999; Kaikati 1987). These studies should also look for a possible suppression effect (Koch and Zerback 2013). Strength Theory When an individual is committing to an occupation, further defining goals, and seeking intimate relationships, which of Levinson's stages is he/she in? The psychology of interpersonal relations. Who is the celebrity endorser? The hierarchy of advertising effects model by Lavidge and Steiner (1961), which was adapted from Grewal et al. Which of the following theories best describes Ted. However, it was not possible to test which of the theoretical explanations is more accurate. Meta-analysis will provide insights about whether there are any differences in terms of effectiveness per outcome type. Finally, we provide practitioners with empirically derived implications for how to choose the right celebrity and offer researchers an agenda for future research. Instead of continuing to prove the effect, future research should rather look for its underlying psychological mechanism as well as boundary conditions. (2001). As the studies showed considerable variance in sample size and some studies produced multiple effect size estimates, effect sizes were weighted by sample size and the number of effect sizes per study. Which developmental task is Cece fulfilling? content; process . *Pease, A., & Brewer, P. R. (2008). Journal of Advertising Research, 24(5), 33–41. Keller, K. L. (2012). A) The Historical Legacy Of Slavery And Colonialism In Sub-Saharan Africa And Latin America. However, celebrity–object match does not necessarily matter when it comes to attitudes toward the ad. The propositional approach to associative learning as an alternative for association formation models. Konstantopoulos, S. (2011). Celebrity endorsements positively affected consumers attitudes toward the endorsed object when celebrity endorsements were compared to a non-endorsed condition (d = .24; 95% CI (.04, .43), p < .05). H9: Celebrity endorsement effects are stronger for unfamiliar objects when compared to familiar ones. Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, 16(3), 159–168. Estimates were based on random-effects models. New York: McGraw-Hill. B. However, the decrease appeared to be significant only when celebrity endorsements were compared to endorsements of an unknown model or athlete, quality seal or award, government employee, or endorser brand. Research methods in psychology. Moreover, all moderated effects came into existence when controlling for the other moderators (Field 2013). In addition, mixed results can be clarified by adding potential moderators to the analysis. *Aureliano-Silva, L., Lopes, E. L. de Lamonica Freire, O. The variance would then be decomposed into sampling variance, between-type of effect size variability, and between-study variability. (2008) applied only a combined measure of advertising effectiveness. Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. In addition, there were no results for individual measures of advertising effectiveness (e.g., cognitive, affective, conative) because all measures were combined into one variable. Human Communication Research, 42(1), 21–44. If Kate voted Conservative, would you? It included surveys and experiments whereby the majority of effect sizes were obtained from surveys. According to this theory, what we believe our duties are will drive how we act in different situations. Journal of Consumer Research, 15(3), 379–385. Celebrity versus company president as endorsers of high risk products for elderly consumers. Sanbonmatsu, D. M., & Kardes, F. R. (1988). Shaughnessy, J. J., & Zechmeister, E. B. International Journal of Advertising, 35, 642–663. Celebrity endorsements positively affected consumers’ attitudes compared to no endorsement, and this effect was significantly lower and negative when celebrity endorsements were compared to an unknown model or athlete, a quality seal or award, a government employee, or an endorser brand. 45, 55–75 (2017). For endorser type, actors performed best followed by athletes and TV hosts, which were followed by models and musicians. *Dixon, H., Scully, M., Kelly, B., Donovan, R., Chapman, K., & Wakefield, M. (2014). Yet there were strong effects on some dependent measures and under some conditions. If the Wikipedia page presented various professions, the first was chosen. The following hypothesis is proposed: H5: Actors elicit stronger celebrity endorsement effects when compared to other types of celebrities such as models, musicians, athletes, or TV hosts. Although these results do not directly refer to celebrity endorsements, similar effects can be assumed because celebrity endorsements are often seen as a certain type of classical conditioning (e.g., *Chen et al. Based on the mechanism behind these effects, consumers are assumed to conclude that an object has a specific attribute when they perceive this object as paired with a celebrity known for this attribute (e.g., premium price with a high-class celebrity; *Miller and Allen 2012). When a brand is growing, what should an ad campaign do? Based on the norms and trends in dating, cohabitation, and marriage in the United States, which one of the following statements is true? New York: Wiley and Sons. Specifically, studies have revealed that people tend to develop relationships with celebrities, merely known from the media, just as they would do with real life persons (Dibble et al. Both processes can be influenced by celebrity endorsements. However, aggregating effect sizes or choosing only one effect size per study may strongly reduce the number of effect sizes, thus lowering the power of statistical tests. The moderator was then coded accordingly. 2006). 1992). Central and peripheral routes to advertising effectiveness: the moderating role of involvement. Attitudes and cognitive organization. All cues are not created equal: obtaining attitude persistence under low- involvement conditions. *Petty, R. E., Cacioppo, J. T., & Schumann, D. (1983). However, highly significant heterogeneity was found among effect sizes (Q (366) = 1095.77, p < .001). Journal of Marketing, 25(6), 59–62. Whereas implicit endorsements refer to situations where celebrities simply use an object or merely appear jointly without overtly announcing their support (“I use this object”; *Miller and Allen 2012), explicit endorsements refer to situations where celebrities overtly express their support for an object (“I endorse this object”; *Miller and Allen 2012). Kamins, M. A. This is further confirmed by Egger’s regression tests being insignificant in all cases (attitude toward endorsed object: t(28) = 1.86, p = .07; attitude toward ad: t(8) = .01, p = .99; behavioral intentions: t(15) = 1.45, p = .17). The most important understudied variables pertain to recognition and recall, meaning transfer, and behavioral measures in general. (1965). Brown, S. P., & Stayman, D. M. (1992). The median age for marriage in the U.S is in the late 20s. Likewise, the eighth hypothesis was rejected as no impact was seen for endorsement frequency. Which of the following theories best describes Ted’s belief? Following Grewal et al. The endorser type was coded as actor (0), model (1), athlete (2), musician (3), or TV host (4), according to the description of the authors. *Friedman, H. H., & Friedman, L. (1979). (1988). According to Perry's scheme, what is the order of the progressive types of cognition that are prevalent during early adulthood? Furthermore, most studies have looked at endorsements of for-profit causes. A., & Mishra, A. Recent data on educational attainment in early adulthood show that: More than half of 18-24 year olds graduating HS in 2017 enrolled in college in 2017. Regulatory fit: a meta-analytic synthesis. Celebrities implicitly endorsing an object enhanced consumers’ attitudes and behavioral intentions substantially more compared to explicit endorsements. Lang, A. What really works for teenagers: human or fictional celebrity? A. 1997, p. 2). Mishra, A. First, people who are interested in a particular celebrity are assumed to purposefully direct their attention to this celebrity’s ad (*Wei and Lu 2013). What is the most common male factor in infertility cases? SAGE: Thousand Oaks. For attitude toward the ad and behavioral intention, the results appeared quite similar. They conclude that “effects on attitude toward the brand can considerably differ depending on whether the measurement occurs immediately after ad exposure or with a delay” and that studies would strongly “benefit from including delayed measures in ad testing, particularly when they deal with celebrity endorsers in the advertisements” (Eisend and Langner 2010, p. 543). Furthermore, some studies reported pretests assessing object familiarity. As a result, celebrity attributes created through celebrities’ role in society transfer to associated objects (McCracken 1989). Effective public service advertisements to attract volunteers for the Special Olympics: an elaboration likelihood perspective. The more familiar a person is with an object, the more comprehensive his or her knowledge structures can become (Keller 2012). 1989; Whittaker 1965). Tests for heterogeneity revealed significant heterogeneity among all three types of effect sizes (attitude toward the endorsed object: Q (116) = 372.67, I2 = 68.87%, p < .001; attitude toward the ad: Q (44) = 200.81, I2 = 78.11%, p < .001; behavioral intention: Q (92) = 188.33, I2 = 51.15%, p < .001). Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 27(2), 67–81. Otherwise, the meta-analyzed effect size would equal the sole obtained effect size, rendering meta-analysis useless. This approach averages effect sizes within differing units depending on the current research question (e.g., study as a unit or study characteristics, such as gender of participants as a unit). Second, the celebrities had to be actually existing celebrities, thus excluding studies that investigated the impact of fictitious and imagined celebrities, as their validity is arguably limited. Studies were collected from three major databases (Business Source Premier, PsychINFO, Communication and Mass Media Complete). Wearout seems rather unlikely in this study, as the maximum number of exposures included in the specific analysis was five, and as “five pairings is not so many as to cause subject boredom but is likely to lead to conditioning effects” (*Till et al. Table 2 shows the meta-analytic results for the most frequently investigated dependent variables.Footnote 2 The first column presents the average effect size for a specific dependent variable. Explicitness can broadly be categorized into two modes: implicit and explicit endorsements. Accompanied by an assessment of measure Allen 2012 ) conditioned stimulus and context for congruence or likability a! 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