Ortiz JR, Neuzil KM, Shay DK, et al.Â The burden of influenza-associated critical illness hospitalizations.Â Crit Care Med. Since the most recent influenza pandemic in 2009 seasonal influenza consists of variable mixes of influenza A(H3N2), A(H1N1)pdm09 - the latter caused the 2009 pandemic, and the two B virus lineages. There are also rapid point of care tests (quick test) that require less time. Alcohol-based hand sanitisers reduce the amount of influenza virus on contaminated hands. Paget WJ, Marquet R, Meijer A, van der Velden J.Â Influenza activity in Europe during eight seasons (1999-2007): an evaluation of the indicators used to measure activity and an assessment of the timing, length and spread across Europe. The incubation time for seasonal influenza is on average two days, but ranges from one to four days. 2005 Jun 21;2:6. Domnich A, Arata L, Amicizia D, Puig-Barberà J, Gasparini R, Panatto D. Effectiveness of MF59-adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccine in the elderly: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Influenza viruses are RNA viruses from the familyÂ Orthomyxoviridae, and have a worldwide distribution. Only type A viruses are able to cause pandemics as they have a reservoir in animals. There is some evidence supporting that surgical masks worn by ill people may reduce infections among close contacts when influenza is circulating. However, during periods of low influenza activity and outside of epidemics situations, the infection of other respiratory viruses e.g. Furthermore, exacerbations of underlying disease, e.g. During a typical influenza season it has been estimated that approximately 75% of the seasonal influenza infections are asymptomatic (Hayward, 2014).Â. 7. 2009;3:37-49, Nair H, Abdullah Brooks W, Katz M et al. For many years, WHO has updated its recommendation on the composition of the vaccine (trivalent) that targets the 3 most representative virus types in circulation (two subtypes of influenza A viruses and one influenza B virus). Apart from the age-related increased risk, the risk of complications is increased for people of any age with particular chronic medical conditions: Moreover, healthy pregnant women have been found to be at increased risk of becoming hospitalized due to respiratory illness during influenza seasons (Dodds, 2007). monograph for Vaccines for human use. Euro Surveill. Cowling B, Chan K-H, Fang VJ, Cheun CYK, Fung ROP, Wai W. et al.Â Facemasks and hand hygiene to prevent influenza transmission in households: a cluster randomized trial Annals of Internal medicine 2009; 151: 437-446. The young have an increased risk of being infected because they have not developed immunity to the virus. Apart from vaccination and antiviral treatment the public health management includes personal protective measures: It is thought that all of these measures may reduce the risk of transmission of influenza though in fact the evidence base is weak. coronary artery disease);Â, chronic kidney diseases (e.g. Read more about avian influenza and swine influenza. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link. Euro Surveill. The majority of cases of human influenza are clinically diagnosed. Influenza A can also be transmitted interchangeably between humans and swine, and from birds to humans. Antibodies to one type or subtype of influenza do not necessarily protect against other influenza virus types or subtypes (so called cross protection). Overall influenza-associated mortality has been estimated to 13.8 per 100,000 person-years (Thompson, 2003). pii: 19112. That is then a pandemic strain (see Edwin D. 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