The maize weevil is very similar to the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (see Fact Sheet no. /SMask /None endstream /OPM 1 Synthetic pyrethroids: e.g., deltamethrin or cypermethrin. 50 gm maize grains (SUWAN-1) was weighed into 250 cm3 Kilner glass jars and separately infested with 5pairs, 10 pairs and 15 pairs of S. zeamais for ninety days. Maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais; another view of the four (very) faint, reddish spots at the corner of the wing case. Photo 2  Georg Goergen, IITA-Benin. Infestations can start in the field, but most damage occurs in storage. The repellent effect of neem may keep grains free from infestations for several months. Sitophilus zeamais [maize weevil) is a field and storage pest of maize of economic importance in several parts of Africa. Malathion: i) as a spray; treat grain and do not use for food within 90 days of treatment; ii) as a dust; treat grain and do not use for food within 14 days of treatment. >> >> The maize weevil is found in all warm and tropical parts of the world. The maize weevil also infests other types of stored, processed cereal products such as pasta, cassava, and variou… stream << The rest were expressed in the legs, wings, or other tested tissues. Its biology was previously reported by Longstaff2. ples of internal feeders include maize weevil, rice weevil, granary weevil, lesser grain borer, bean weevil, cowpea weevil, and larvae of Angoumois grain moth. A three-year study of the maize weevil dispersing from a corn storage bin was made at Baton Rouge. They can also enter the kernel through feeding damage created by internal pests. Moisture levels should be about 12% (most stored product pests required moisture levels of 13-18% to reproduce). Note that many storage pests are resistant to malathion. A very destructive weevil, with the adults attacking sound grain, and the adults and the larvae feeding inside them, leaving large cavities and emergence holes. Twenty-six of forty-one maize weevil OBP genes were highly expressed in the antennae or other parts of the head. Both adults and larvaefeed on internally on maize grains and an infestation can start in the field (when the cob is still on the plant) but most damage occurs in storage. The maize kernel and their parts. << /Ordering (Identity) Dry the grain as soon as possible after harvest, and re-dry during storage if necessary. Maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais; adult side view. This species attacks both crops that are still growing and those that have been harvested. CULTURAL CONTROLIt is most important to dry the grain properly, to keep the storage area clean, and to monitor the grain often and regularly. It can be found in numerous tropical areas around the world, and in the United States, and is a major pest of maize. on spread of green fungus, Aspergillus section flavi, in different varieties of stored maize in laboratory in 2016. /Length1 81592 Perhaps a method to avoid if seed is for growing. Look for the adults, with long snouts (about 1 mm). Worldwide.            Note care must be taken to ensure that the treated seed does not contaminate that used for human consumption. Neem. This study evaluated S. zeamais infestation on seven varieties of maize. In stored maize, heavy infestation of weevil cause weight losses of with ranges from 30-40% (Paneru et al., 1996). Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) is a cosmopolitan insect and causes great damage to stored grains. There is a withholding period of 1 day before treated grain can be used for human or stock consumption. Maize endobj Most eggs are laid in the first 4-5 weeks of the female's life which lasts about a year. /ca 1 The procedure is carried out by certified operators. (*���(%�8H����8c�-�� f�ԉd�9�@6_IjH��9���(3=�D����R�1%? Sitophilus zeamais(maize weevil) is a field and storage pest of maize of economic importance in several parts of Africa. 338). For small infestations, freezing for several days and then heating for 24 hours is affective. Maize weevil is one of the most serious, internal feeding pests of maize seed and grain. Pesticide free methods of maize weevil control in stored maize for developing countries Denis Bbosa Iowa State University Follow this and additional works at:https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/etd Part of theAgriculture Commons, and theBioresource and Agricultural Engineering Commons This Thesis is brought to you for free and open access by the Iowa State University Capstones, Theses and … Keep grain storage rooms, sheds, houses, or "cribs" clean. /Filter /FlateDecode Weevil adults attack whole grains, and larvae cryptically feed and develop within grains3. Note that identification of Sitophilus zeamais is difficult because of its similarity with Sitophilus oryzae, and needs to be done by a taxonomist. /AIS false Controlling of the pest by use of synthetic pesticides is raising serious concern on the environmental safety and consumer health hazards. Sitophilus zeamais, or the maize weevil, is a species of weevil that is commonly found in maize crops. different parts of a grain Health Value Of. /Length 40441 Distribution: Cosmopolitan, especially in the warmer parts of the world.. Morphology: The larvae of both species are apodous, whitish, with brown heads, about 3-4 mm long. Download << >> /OP false Produced with support from the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research under project PC/2010/090: Strengthening integrated crop management research in the Pacific Islands in support of sustainable intensification of high-value crop production, implemented by the University of Queensland and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community. Maize and the maize weevil: Advances and innovations in postharvest control of the pest. An egg hatches in a few days into a soft, white, legless, fleshly grub which feeds on the interior of the grain kernel. /Filter /FlateDecode >> Pyrethrins: Used as a grain protectant (sometimes with piperonyl butoxide). Materials and Methods Sitophilus zeamais culture. S. zeamais is found in all tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world (Dobie, 1974). H�\Ut�W��9��7�!n܄�� �I��`Iě��,�1T��k�����Hg�o�QLu�x�P�E. Her Majesty's Stationery Office. %���� The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is one of the most de-structive pests of stored cereals. Sieving has been used as a method of removing adult weevils, but it is very labour intensive. Other insect species develop on the cracked or bro- ken kernels and grain dust, which can be produced by harvesting or binning procedures. /N 1 The larvae feed on the stem tissue and damage the plant, sometimes causing the stem to break off or fall over. Phylogenic analysis indicated that most maize weevil OBPs were closely related to their orthologues in other beetles of the Superfamily Curculionoidea. http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/maize_pests/key/maize_pests/Media/Html/Sitophilus_zeamais_Motschulsky_1855_-_Maize_Weevil.htm. Maize weevil, greater grain weevil, greater rice weevil. /BM /Normal READ THE INSTRUCTIONS. << Photo 3. (Source: maize.agron.iastate.edu) In line with the figure above, the kernel parts indicated include: The pericarp or hull (thin covering which enclose the kernel). Photo 1. stream occurs in all warm and tropical parts of the world especially in locations where maize is grown. The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais), known in the United States as the greater rice weevil, is a species of beetle in the family Curculionidae. Locate the source and destroy it by wrapping the foods in heavy plastic bags or in sealed containers, and burn or bury deeply in the soil. S. zeamais is found in all tropical and sub-tropical parts of the world (Dobie, 1974). /CA 1 endobj ResearchArticle Role of Maize Weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. Experiments were conducted to find out the role of maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. It is the dominant Sitophilus species found in rice granaries in all but the southern part of Thailand1. Maize weevil can infest various stored agricultural products such as maize, sorghum, wheat, barley, rice and paddy The article summarizes research dynamics on maize weevil postharvest association with maize grain and addressed grain quality and safety after pest-control process. Adult female S. zeamais cause damage by boring into the kernel and laying eggs (ovipositing). Alie, S. Ansarul Haq, Seerat-u-Nissa, Sabiya Bashir, Fayaz A. Bahar, Tanveer-ul-Hassan, Abrar Yaseen Baba, Aijaz A. Lone and F.A. Controlling of the pest by use of synthetic pesticides is raising serious concern on the environmental safety and consumer health hazards. 328). The bean stem weevil (Alcidodes leucogrammus), bores into the base of the stem of French bean (Phaseolus) or cowpea (Vigna) plants and lays a small number of eggs. Photo 4. If using bins, remove any grains that remain (and, if possible, spray with insecticide). /SA true In sub-tropical and tropical countries. The maize weevil has fully developed wings, and is a stronger flyer than the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae, and spreads more widely this way. endobj It is a pest of stored maize, dried cassava, yam, common sorghum and wheat. S. zeamais are regarded as internal feeders of grains. /op false The maize weevil is very similar to the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (see Fact Sheet no. CABI says that "Sitophilus zeamais is predominantly found associated with maize grain, whereas Sitophilus oryzae is associated with wheat". Neonicotinoids: e.g., imidocloprid. Maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, clearly showing four light reddish to yellowish spots at the corners of the wing case. It is difficult to detect the weevil unless populations are high as it spends most of its life inside grain. endstream Usually, the greater the number of weevils the nearer the source. adults of maize weevil mortality at different hours Plant parts used for medicinal purposes indicated that, the local communities mostly use leaves (31.5%) and followed by roots (28.3%), fruit (8.2%), seed (6.5%), bark (4.9%), stem (3.4%), sap (3.3%), latex (1.6%), flower (0.5%), and others (13.1%). If there is an infestation, locate it by putting sticky traps around the room or warehouse where it occurred. Weevils develop inside the grain, females digging a tunnel into the grain with the chewing mouthparts at the end of the elongated snout before laying an egg and cementing over the opening with a gelatinous plug … Bt: Some success has been reported using Bt. /Filter /FlateDecode /Type /ExtGState Look for a dull red-brown to nearly black weevil, with faint yellowish or reddish spots on its back, at the corners of the wing cases (Photos 3&4). This fact sheet is a part of the app Pacific Pests and Pathogens. >> endobj Family of Curculionidae, maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) is a small weevil about 2.4 – 4.5 mm in length with its head protruded into a snout or a distinct beak or proboscis. 13 0 obj H�j 0 � � The grub changes to a naked white pupa and later … )U!���$5�X�3/9�� �(�$5�j�%V*�'��&*���r" (,!��!�0b;�C��Ң2(��ɘ� � I�8/ Adults are 3-4 mm long, reddish-brown to black (Photos 1&2), with four light reddish to yellowish spots at the corners of the wing cases (Photo 3&4). It must not be used for animal consumption, poultry feed or mixed with animal feed. The six major types of maize are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, popcorn, flour corn, and sweet corn. Secondary damage is caused by moulds, insects and mites. The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) is a species of beetle in the family Curculionidae. The eggs hatch into white, legless larvae, which remain inside the grain, and pupate there. This weevil is transported to all over the world in grain shipments and establish wherever there is food and where grain moisture and can temperature are favorable. Fifty unsexed 3-6 days old maize weevil adults were introduced to each glass jar containing 0.1kg muyra-2 seed. S. oryzae, the rice weevil, and S. zeamais, the maize weevil, are found in all warm and tropical parts of the world, but S. oryzae may also be found in wheat stored in temperate climates. Maize weevil is one of the most serious, internal feeding pests of maize seed and grain. 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