textual—the re-use and remixing of media into what has been termed a ‘transmedia’ model, where stories and media content (for example, sounds, images, written text) are dispersed across multiple media platforms. This convergence of television opens many potential opportunities for marketers to target customers in ways not available with traditional over-the-air television advertising. Respondents questioned assumptions that one medium has more effect on media users than another and should therefore be subject to more stringent forms of content regulation. If the work of media consumers was once silent and invisible, the new consumers are now noisy and public. This is a term developed by innovation economists to refer to 50-year cycles of changes to the technological and knowledge base of societies. Television celebrities feature prominently in book sales; books by chefs who have been on television out-sell those of chefs who have not; television programs have significant flow-on effects for the children’s toy market; and many of the best selling music artists had their first public exposure on TV talent contests. This has led to the rise of content distributors such as YouTube, and media platforms such as Apple iTunes and Android Market, that sit across national boundaries. If it's the latter situation, I'm not sure why you'd be trying to provide AD/DS remotely other than for an entirely terminal services domain. It may be that the first film was prepared, so this one was directly directed by himself. 2/No.2 NEW MEDIA AND CONVERGENCE: A DEVELOPMENT COMMUNICATION PERSPECTIVE Archan Mitra Student P G Diploma in Mass Communication (Session: 2010-11) Department of Adult Continuing Education & Extension Jadavpur University Jadavpur, West Bengal, India & Existing regulatory arrangements built around industry ‘silos’ are challenged by new technologies, market structures and business models. [1] T Flew, New Media: An Introduction (3rd ed, 2008), 22. 3.47 Such trends can be expected to be accelerated by the digital switchover: as of September 2011, 82% of Australian households had digital television, and it is expected that the full switchover to digital TV will be completed by the end of 2013. Traditional media exists in the forms of hard copy which includes newspapers, books, journals, digest, encyclopedias, scholarly tomes, and magazines. Email info@alrc.gov.au, PO Box 12953 3.14 As of December 2010, there were 10.45 million active internet subscribers in Australia, of which 8.15 million were household subscribers and 2.3 million were business and government subscribers. [23] World Intellectual Property Organization, World Intellectual Property Indicators (2010), 33. Social Media and the Convergence of Marketing and PR. Classification—Content Regulation and Convergent Media (ALRC Report 118), 3. Supporting this argument, Deuze cited in Erdal (2011) suggests that media convergence should be viewed as ‘cooperation and collaboration’ between previously unconnected media forms and platforms. Beside, in term of society especially, media convergence cause the fragmentation of audiences for news. The Convergence of Conventional Media and New ... built up, they injected vigor not only into the media industry but also the tertiary sector; it ... On the flip side, the Internet-based technologies pull audiences and advertisers away from the conventional media. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. On the one hand, convergence can be viewed as ‘coming together of different equipment and tools for producing and distributing news’ (ibid.). The growing speed and intensity of innovation, and the increasing diversity of sources of innovation, including users themselves as co-creators of new or improved products and services. 3.52 This point was made by several respondents to the ALRC’s Discussion Forum in relation to the viability of Restricted Access Systems (RAS) as a means for regulating minors’ access to online content. In the case of news media, for example, the top five Australian online news sites all rank among the top 25 Australian websites in terms of site visits, and an estimated 4.35 million users per month access content from at least one of these sites. It takes completely separate ideas and smashes them together, so that we're left with one big idea. 2020/21 Christmas Closure: closed from 5pm Wednesday 23 December 2020 reopening 8.30am Monday 4 January 2021. The New National Classification Scheme, 6. They change the television viewing experience from one where the viewer faces a wide range of programs available at a given time, to an arrangement of greater consumer choice about what to view and when. [39] G Dyer, ‘Viewers turn to digital channels’ at 8 December 2011. If old consumers were assumed to be passive, the new consumers are active. In 2009, 92% of child internet users accessed the internet from home, 86% accessed it from school, and 45% from public libraries and internet cafes.[44]. Convergence is hands-down the most critical, disruptive trend in our industry today. The growing share of intangible capital—including investment in education and training, research and development, and information and coordination as well as health expenditures—as compared to tangible capital in total capital formation. For example, you now have the ability to watch television or movies on your smartphones. [26] A Bruns, Blogs, Wikipedia, Second Life, and Beyond: From Production to Produsage (2008). Newspapers, magazines, audiovisual media content, music and film are increasingly distributed and consumed online, in environments that are both public in terms of the networked platforms from which they are accessed, and private in terms of their consumption in the home rather than in public places. This concept can be explained more clearly using the example of television industry and its development over the years. It found that 190,000 people were directly employed in occupations related to the internet, ranging from internet hardware and software industries to online information services, IT software and consulting, online advertising, government and e-commerce activities. According to Jenkins, media convergence is an ongoing process that should not be viewed as a displacement of the old media, but rather as interaction between different media forms and platforms (Jenkins, 2006). The rise of knowledge-based communities and global knowledge networks, where information can be easily shared and re-used, and where collaboration can occur that is not reliant upon physical co-presence in particular geographical locations. Nowadays, people talk about not having enough time to everything they want in a day or doing more than one thing at one time. It’s the root of so many other trends like programmatic, addressable, social TV, and more. [44] Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Social Trends: Children of the Digital Revolution at 18 July 2011, ABS Catalogue No. Media theorist Henry Jenkins argues that convergence isn’t an end result (as is the hypothetical black box), but instead a process that changes how media is both consumed and produced. Markings, Modifications, Time Zones and Advertising, Advertisements for films, television programs and computer games, 9. Print, Internet, radio, and television companies are all competing for the same advertiser market share. 1. While marketing and public relations (PR) are commonly thought of in different terms, the popularity of social media has brought the two to work together in ways we didn’t think about before. TVs are consumer-level devices, which mean that they have to be cheap (for the average Joe) Being able to display the vast number of media types available today on the web (Macromedia, pdf, ps, RealAudio, RealVideo) will be expensive and challenging - you need a general-purpose CPU and stuff like RAM, OS, etc. . Films, Television Programs and Computer Games, Determining what content should be classified, Films, television programs and computer games, Content to be classified by the Classification Board, 8. In its submission, Telstra observed that, over the period from October 2009 to October 2010, the iTunes site attracted four times the number of video downloads of the largest Australian providers (ABC iView, Yahoo!7 and NineMSN), and that its viewers spent over 10 times longer on iTunes than on the equivalent Australian sites.[15]. Nearly 15.1 million Australians aged 14 or over (83% of the population) went online during the December quarter of 2010, and 71% of internet users went online at least once a day. 3.19 At the same time, media convergence has increased the tendency towards media globalisation. [13] Deloitte Access Economics, The Connected Continent: How the Internet Is Transforming the Australian Economy (2011). Queensland 4003. This privilege carries with it an obligation to provide the public with programs which meet the standards it expects.[43]. See also C Leadbeater, We-Think: Mass Innovation, Not Mass Production (2008). [12] In Australia, there are an estimated six million YouTube users, watching over 200 million videos per month. Media is consumed and offered extensively today in many different types of formats. media policy needs to be premised upon content abundance and increased media competition, rather than upon distribution scarcity and monopolistic or oligopolistic media markets; technological changes generate new challenges for maintaining technology-neutral or network-neutral media regulations; media regulations can have unintended consequences in advantaging or disadvantaging some platforms, services and providers as compared to others engaged in comparable activities; and. 3.10 The rise of a new techno-economic paradigm is invariably disruptive, as it challenges established business models, industry structures, organisational frameworks and public policy settings. George Street Post Shop Indeed, Deloitte has observed that television’s ‘super media’ status remains strong. Facing the current media convergence situation, there are two opinions:some people worry that media is excessive freedom;others fear that media is excessive controlled. This figure had grown by 17% from 8.95 million in December 2009. [12] News.com.au, YouTube reaches 4 billion views per day: 60 hours of video uploaded per minute at 24 January 2012. Sign up to received email updates. PercentageOfHouseholdsEstimates2011p7.pdf> at 26 July 2011. . [40] Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Join the Conversation, Annual Report 2010-2011, 55. 3.34 The OECD identified user-created content as a ‘significant disruptive force … [that] creates both opportunities and challenges for established market participants and their strategies’, further arguing that: The more immediate economic impacts in terms of growth, entry of new firms and employment are currently with ICT goods and services providers and newly forming [user-created content] platforms. This included 60% of 5–8 year olds, and 96% of 12–14 year olds. [40] Individual programs such as Angry Boys recorded over one million pays during 2010–11, a figure almost equal to its five-city average audience share. [4] G Meikle and S Young, Media Convergence: Networked Digital Media in Everyday Life (2011). ( Log Out /  It entails a shift away from platform-specific modes of content regulation, premised upon the structural separation of industries and content into particular technological ‘silos’, that have been the basis of media policy in Australia and elsewhere: Whilst technology has eroded the traditional divisions between free‑to‑air (FTA) television and the internet, newspapers and websites, radio and streaming services, our policy and regulation is still based on the industry and service structures of the early 1990s.[10]. I ndividuals want control (or to feel in control) over their media, which is part of the reason why complete convergence is not possible. Security and information governance are converging across the enterprise market and are poised to make organizations more efficient while improving operations and … Nearly 15.1 million Australians aged 14 or over (83% of the population) went online during the December quarter of 2010, and 71% of internet users went online at least once a day. The media convergence is something that the suppliers should offer cheap and not expensive to swindle the public. [27], 3.33 The rise of user-created content is associated with broader trends away from a 20th century mass communications model, characterised by large-scale distribution, media content largely produced and distributed by media professionals, and a clear distinction between media producers and consumers. [29] Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Participative We and User-Created Content: Web 2.0, Wikis and Social Networking (2007), 11. the interlinking of computing and ICTs, communication networks, and media content that has occurred with the development and popularisation of the Internet, and the convergent products, services and activities that have emerged in the digital media space. 3.50 It was estimated that, in the 12 months prior to April 2009, 2.2 million children (79%) aged 5–14 years reported accessing the internet, which was an increase from 65% in 2006. 3.14 As of December 2010, there were 10.45 million active internet subscribers in Australia, of which 8.15 million were household subscribers and 2.3 million were business and government subscribers. [20] Australian Communications and Media Authority, Emerging Business Models in the Digital Economy: The Mobile Applications Market (2011), 15. [18] For an argument of this nature, see J Tunstall, The Media Were American: U.S. Mass Media in Decline (2008). [35] OzTAM, Digital Terrestrial Television and PVR Penetration at 19 July 2011. The Australian Law Reform Commission acknowledges the traditional owners and custodians of country throughout Australia and acknowledges their continuing connection to land, sea and community. With the help of social networking sites, the public can interact with the media in a much more efficient way. field of journalism is moving away from maintaining separate newsrooms staffed with reporters who specialize in that media only. Importantly, such devices also include parental locks, giving parents greater potential to control the access that their children have to material accessed from such platforms. If old consumers were isolated individuals, the new consumers are more socially connected. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. In other words, whether or not media convergence presents more opportunities than challenges to both media producers and consumers. Digital media convergence enables news to be delivered quickly to the public. 3.49 While expectations that the media continue to meet community standards remain important, the distinctions between media distribution methods are now less clear-cut. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. [10] Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy, Convergence Review: Interim Report (2011), iv. Media convergence and the transformed media environment. 3.31 An important shift in the media associated with convergence is the rise of user-created content, and a shift in the nature of media users from audiences to participants. It also includes shifts within the industrial, cultural, and social paradigms that encourage the consumer to seek out new information. It seems that the two sisters are still far away, and cross-platform connections are necessary. These are mere branches that wouldn’t even exist, let alone flourish, without convergence. Their ability to enforce this remit is restricted due to the sheer volume of media content as well as the decentralisation and vast number of media producers. Each great surge of development involves a turbulent process of diffusion and assimilation. [22] K Crawford and C Lumby, The Adaptive Moment: A Fresh Approach to Convergent Media in Australia (2011), 40. Nowadays the power to control media industry is concentrated in the hands of private owners and relatively small number of big media corporations. In the case of analogue media, each form was separate and independent from the others due to the need to use different ‘materials, properties and apparatuses’ (ibid.). Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. [9] Australian Law Reform Commission, National Classification Scheme Review, ALRC Issues Paper 40 (2011). According to Jenkins, media convergence is an ongoing process that should not be viewed as a displacement of the old media, but rather as interaction between different media forms and platforms (Jenkins, 2006). OzTAM, Consolidated Metropolitan Top 20 Programs: 5 City Ranking Report—Free To Air Only, Week 28, 2011 . [32] For example, the Arts Law Centre of Australia noted the importance of making a distinction between ‘films and television programs produced on a commercial basis’ and ‘user-generated content media created primarily for non-commercial purposes’.[33]. Via the above diagram, Negroponte illustrated that in 1980 there was relatively little overlap between the computing, communications and co… Many see this as simply the tip of the iceberg, since all aspects of institutional activity and social life—from art to business, government to journalism, health and education, and beyond—are increasingly conducted in this interactive digital media environment, across a plethora of networked ICT devices. In its review of policies for audio-visual media, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) identified four fundamental changes in the media policy environment in the context of convergence: 3.21 The OECD therefore proposes as a guide to developing policy and regulatory instruments in a convergent media environment that: New developments do not imply that existing regulations need to extend their coverage over other platforms and services … [I]t is important that instruments used do not hinder the positive developments and aspects of convergence while also being effective, robust and flexible.[17]. 3.25 For much of the 20th century, media regulations could be nationally based, as media services largely operated within existing territorial jurisdictions, and were therefore clearly subject to the laws and regulations of a single nation-state, even when they operated as multinational corporations. . The ALRC expects that such trends will intensify, as more and more Australians acquire access to high-speed broadband services. Agencies, Organisations and Individuals Consulted, Appendix 2. What else cannot be done by domestic movies. There are some big media companies that have control over various aspects of the entertainment industry in general. [28] T Flew, The Creative Industries, Culture and Policy (2012), 165. Back before media convergence, content would be gathered first hand by reporters or researchers from each company, but because of media convergence companies are gathering information via social media (Australian Government, 2012). It erodes long-established media industry and content “silos” and increasingly uncouples content from particular devices, which in turn presents major challenges for public policy and regulation. It is estimated that 60 hours of video are uploaded every minute onto YouTube, and four billion videos are viewed every day worldwide from that site alone. In a 1976 report into Australian broadcasting, it was observed that: The public own the airwaves … [and] since frequencies are scarce, and the broadcast media are influential, to grant a broadcast licence is to bestow a privilege. In describing the resulting internationalisation of content distribution in relation to the mobile applications (‘apps’) market, the ACMA observed that ‘the mobile applications market functions on both a national and global scale, and this has implications for regulation in Australia … App stores … are all based overseas … [and] app developers are also based in multiple international jurisdictions.’[20], 3.26 In the 21st century, a range of network-based media platforms and services operate on a global scale in real time since, as the OECD has observed, ‘the Internet has achieved global interconnection without the development of any international regulatory regime’.[21]. [42] The rollout of the National Broadband Network (NBN) will also make internet TV services (IPTV) available to a much wider range of Australian households, as well as enabling greater use of online catch-up TV services. 3.23 At the same time, local audiences have frequently displayed a preference for culturally relevant local media content where it is available. Technological convergence is the merging of technologies that allows us to access previously inaccessible technologies on one device. Jenkins (2006:3), on the other hand, defines convergence as ‘flow of content across multiple media platforms’, suggesting that media audiences nowadays play a crucial role in creating and distributing content, and convergence therefore has to be examined in terms of social, as well as technological changes within the society. not … [11] All figures are taken from Australian Communications and Media Authority, The Internet Service Market and Australians in the Online Environment (2011). [42] Digital Switchover Taskforce, Are you ready for Digital TV? Media convergence transforms established industries, services, and work practices and enables entirely new forms of content to emerge. ( Log Out /  The interlinking of computing and ICTs, communication networks, and media content that has occurred with the development and popularisation of the Internet, and the convergent products, services and activities that have emerged in the digital media space. 3.51 It is considerably more difficult to restrict access to online content than is possible for other media platforms. It is embodied by the three C's: computing, communication and content. [24] P David and D Foray, ‘An Introduction to the Economics of the Knowledge Society’ (2002) 54(171) International Social Science Journal 9. It was noted that credit/debit cards are widely available to people under the age of 18, and that any more rigorous form of age verification had the potential to raise significant privacy concerns.[45]. David and Foray estimate that the stock of intangible capital first exceeded that of tangible capital in the United States in 1973, and has continued to grow since then. The World Intellectual Property Office has observed, for example, that the number of patent applications worldwide has grown from about 1 million in 1995 to 1.9 million in 2008, and the number of patents granted has grown from 450,000 in 1995 to 750,000 in 2008.[23]. Faster speed would not give you faster delivery to your clients. Most of the people who claim that these things don’t work fail because of THEIR failure to do the work – to adopt a new discipline – to FOCUS and COMMIT. Convergence in media consumption & media buying There was a time when you had simple choices to make – like choosing one newspaper from the 3 or 4 available, one radio station, one television station that broadcasted only in the evenings, couple of magazines from half a dozen available and so on. 3.46 In May 2011, ABC iView had over one million visitors and 3.3 million visits to the service, amounting to an 84% increase on the figures 12 months previously. This is partly related to a greater diversity of choices of media content and platforms, but also in the ability to achieve greater personalisation of the media content that one chooses to access. 7 TV, ninemsn video, TEN Online, and SBS On Demand. And as we search for more and more ways to create things that would make our tasks easier, media convergence is bound to occur. Billions of people around the world are continuing to suffer from poor access to water, sanitation and hygiene, according to a new report by UNICEF and the World Health Organization. [2] Australian Communications and Media Authority, Digital Australians—Expectations About Media Content in a Converging Media Environment: Qualitative and Quantitative Research Report (2011), 7. In the future, there will be more media convergence production available for our life, and the prospective of media convergence will be better. [21] Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Communiqué on Principles for Internet Policy-making, OECD High Level Meeting on The Internet Economy: Generating Innovation and Growth, Paris, 29–30 June 2011, 3. Changes in the way users produce, distribute, access and re-use information, knowledge and entertainment potentially give rise to increased user autonomy, increased participation and increased diversity.[30]. 3.15 Australians are also accessing the internet through higher-speed connections: 46% of household subscribers are accessing services with a maximum download speed of 8Mbps or higher, while the number of dial-up subscribers declined by 21% over 2009–2010, with about 18.8 gigabytes of data being downloaded per internet subscriber in December 2010, up by 28.8% on the previous year, and with major growth in the downloading of video content.[11]. 3.7 In their book Media Convergence: Networked Digital Media in Everyday Life, Graham Meikle and Sherman Young observe that convergence can be understood in four dimensions: 3.8 While technological change is a constant feature of modern economies, the changes associated with convergence, digitisation and networking have been seen as providing the basis for a new ‘techno-economic paradigm’. Stay informed with all of the latest news from the ALRC. **Media convergence** is a phenomenon that interconnects or merges the information technology with communication technology. [34], 3.40 The capacity for more personalised media is strongly related to the internet, but it is also increasingly characteristic of more traditional media platforms, such as the increasing number of Australian households with some form of personal video recorder (PVR). Approximately 3.1 million Australians aged 14 or over accessed the internet via a mobile phone handset during December 2010, as compared to 1.9 million during December 2009. 2019-10-12 15:24:23 2961 views abstract. ( Log Out /  [32] This issue was raised by Lin, Submission CI 2476 and CI 2525; I Graham, Submission CI 2507; J Trevaskis, Submission CI 2493; and A Hightower, Submission CI 2511. [38], 3.43 At the same time, the greater availability of television channels is already significantly changing viewer behaviour, with significant implications for content regulation. The top five online news sites were news.com.au, ninemsn.com.au, smh.com.au, abc.net.au and theage.com.au. This figure had grown by 17% from 8.95 million in December 2009. at 23 January 2012. 3.20 Media convergence has major policy consequences. Media convergence has become one of the main types of data and information sources when considering internet usage today. Although for some people, they could not adapt to the products of media convergence and they could not change their lifestyle, media convergence still has necessitated to exist in the new media age. The ICT revolution, which has fundamentally transformed the conditions for creating, storing, accessing, distributing and reusing information and data. With the introduction of digital code however the situation changed rapidly and opened new possibilities for media creation and convergence, for example, new forms of interaction between producers and consumers. The Apple iTunes store now sells almost 10 million songs per day, making it by far the major music retailer worldwide. Consequences of this trend can be viewed as both positive and negative. Media consolidation, also known as media convergence, is the concentration of media ownership with only a few companies or individuals. 3.22 The globalisation of media platforms, content and services is also a critical feature of the convergent media environment. 3.48 The eighth and final driver of change associated with media convergence is the blurring of distinctions between public and private, and of age-based restrictions to media access. 3.29 In discussing the rise of the knowledge-based economy, Paul David and Dominique Foray relate the acceleration of knowledge production to the interrelationship between four developments: 3.30 The media industries, broadly defined, have been at the centre of these developments. : //www.alexa.com/topsites/countries/AU > at 26 July 2011, radio, and Beyond: Production... That traditional television viewing habits will disappear is concentrated in the hands of private owners and small... 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